Categorías
Electrónica

Charge sharing in series and parallel capacitors

Motivation

Several months ago I started trying to find how charge distribution across different capacitors works and I came up to this thought experiment. I used CircuitLab to simulate it and confirm what my intuition said it would ocurr. However, this intuition was wrong and led me to post this question in Electronical Engineering of Stack Exchange in order to find an explanation. Several people took some time to answer the question (really appreaciated), however the answers were not actually satisfactory since they were not really explaining analytically what was behind it. Arout seven months later, I finally found the solution thanks to this video.

For a basic explanation on how to deal with capacitors and charge, please refer to this previous post, written the very same day I started struggling trying to find a solution to this.

Explanation

In this circuit, there is an independent DC current source of \(1~mA\) and switches SW1 and SW2 are closed at time \(t=t_1 = 1ns\). From time \(0 < t < t_1\), only \(C_1\) is connected to the current source, so the expected voltage \(V_1\) could be expressed as:

\[V_1 \left( t \right) = \int{\frac{i_1}{C_1}dt} = \frac{i_1 \cdot t}{C_1}\]

The rest of capacitors are discharged and therefore its voltage is \(0~V\) as shown in the following plot:

Now, at time \(t = t_1 = 1 ns\), switches SW1 and SW2 are closed and capacitors \(C_2\) and \(C_3\) are connected to the circuit. At this point, the current source will keep injecting charge into the capacitors. However, we need first to compute how charge is distributed across capacitors \(C_1\), \(C_2\), \(C_3\). The total charge of the circuit at time \(t = t^-_1\) is:

\[Q_T\left(t^-_1\right) = Q_1 = C_1 \cdot V_1\left(t_1\right)\]

\[V_1\left(t_1\right) = \frac{i_1 \cdot t_1}{C_1} = \frac{1~mA\cdot 1ns}{1~pF} = 1~V\]

By applying superposition theorem, we can determine the contribution of the \(C_1\) voltage on the rest of capacitors. To do so, let’s analyze the following equivalent circuit:

Capacitors \(C_2\) and \(C_3\) are actually connected in series since they share the ground node. So, circuit could be arranged in the following manner:


The equivalent capacitance would be:

\[ C_{eq} = \frac{C_2 \cdot C_3}{C_2 + C_3} \]

Now, let’s compute the total charge of the system. To do so, let’s rearrange again the circuit. In order to being able to compare the total charge at \(t = t^+_1\) with the total charge \(Q_T\left(t^-_1\right)\), we need to keep being compliant with sign declaration. So \(Q_T\) must be computed from the following point:

Then, the total charge of the system \(Q_T\left(t^+_1\right)\) would be:

\[Q_T\left(t^+_1\right)= Q_1 – Q_{eq} = V_1\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_1 – V_{eq}\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{eq}\]

Due to the way the capacitors are connected, we can assert that \(V_{eq} = -V_1\). Therefore, the total charge of the system can be expressed as a function of \(V_1\):

\[Q_T\left(t^+_1\right)= V_1\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_1 – V_{eq}\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{eq} = V_{1}\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{1} + V_1\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{eq}\]

Since the charge in the system must keep constant after the switches position changed, it can be said that:

\[ Q_T\left(t^-_1\right) = Q_T\left(t^+_1\right)\]

This can be expanded to:

\[ C_1 \cdot V_1\left(t^-_1\right) = V_{1}\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{1} + V_1\left(t^+_1\right) \cdot C_{eq}\]

Solving for the new \(V_1\) at time \(t = t^+_1\):

\[ V_1\left(t^+_1\right) = \frac{C_1}{C_1 + C_{eq}} V_1\left(t^-_1\right) \]

Using the values of our example, i.e. \(C_1 = 1~pF\) and \(C_{eq} = \frac{1~pF\cdot0.5~pF}{1~pF+0.5~pF} = 0.333~pF\):

\[ V_1\left(t^+_1\right) = \frac{1~pF}{1~pF + 0.333~pF} \cdot 1~V = 0.75~V \]

\[ V_{eq}\left(t^+_1\right) = -0.75~V \]

Now, we just need to compute the voltages at capacitors \(C_2\) and \(C_3\).

Since voltage \(V_{eq}\) across them is known, we can compute the voltages \(V_{C3}\) and \(V_{C2}\) by solving the capacitive divider they constitute:

\[V_{C3} = \frac{C_2}{C_2 + C_3} V_{eq}\]

\[V_{C2} = \frac{C_3}{C_2+C_3}V_{eq}\]

Replacing the previous expressions with our example values, we get the following voltages:

\[V_{C3} = \frac{1~pF}{1~pF + 0.5~pF}\cdot\left(-0.75\right) = -0.5~V \]

\[V_{C2} = \frac{0.5~pF}{1~pF + 0.5~pF}\cdot\left(-0.75\right) =  -0.25~V\]

Finally, we can conclude that:

\[ V_{2} = V_{C2} = -0.25~V\]

\[ V_{3} = -V_{C3} = 0.5~V\]

Theses results are confirmed in simulation:

Categorías
Programación

Visit all array combinations with a recursive function

A = [1, 2, 3]
B = [4, 5]
C = [6, 7, 8]

# Visit all combinations of A, B and C values
all = [A, B, C]

# General pointer. Points to the current variable: 0 -> A, 1 -> B, ...
gp = 0
# Internal pointer. Points to the item on the current variable
# Example: gp = 1 --> B selected. ip = 2 --> B[2] selected --> B[2] = 5
ip = [0] * len(all)

def iterator(a):
    # For Python to get gp from global scope
    global gp
    # Weird way in Python to create a for loop. Equivalent in C to:
    # for(int i = 0; i < len(a[0]); i++)
    for i in range(0, len(a[0])):
        # Store current internal pointer
        ip[gp] = i
        # If a has more variables (e.g. a = [[1,2,3], [4,5], [6,7,8]])
        if len(a) > 1:
            # Create subset for the remaining variables, i.e. [[4,5], [6,7,8]]
            # Pythonic way to create an array subset from a given index until
            # end of the array
            b = a[1:]
            # Increase global index as we are about to sweep next variables
            gp = gp + 1
            # Iterate the rest of variables, i.e. [[4,5], [6,7,8]]
            iterator(b)
            # We came back from lower variables (B and C), so restoring global 
            # pointer to point again to A
            gp = gp - 1
        else:
            # Just for result visualization purposes
            str = "["
            # External index and internal index
            for i_ext, i_in in enumerate(ip):
                str = str + "{}, ".format(all[i_ext][i_in])
            # Remove last ", " and add closing ] (cosmetic)
            str = str.strip(", ") + "]"
            print("Indexes = {} --> Values: {}".format(ip, str))

            # ip contains the indexes to all internal variables. Example:
            # Iterating at A[3], B[2], C[1] --> ig = [3, 2, 1] 

iterator(all)

Result

Given the input variables:

A = [1, 2, 3]
B = [4, 5]
C = [6, 7, 8]

the output of the script is as follows:

Indexes = [0, 0, 0] --> Values: [1, 4, 6]
Indexes = [0, 0, 1] --> Values: [1, 4, 7]
Indexes = [0, 0, 2] --> Values: [1, 4, 8]
Indexes = [0, 1, 0] --> Values: [1, 5, 6]
Indexes = [0, 1, 1] --> Values: [1, 5, 7]
Indexes = [0, 1, 2] --> Values: [1, 5, 8]
Indexes = [1, 0, 0] --> Values: [2, 4, 6]
Indexes = [1, 0, 1] --> Values: [2, 4, 7]
Indexes = [1, 0, 2] --> Values: [2, 4, 8]
Indexes = [1, 1, 0] --> Values: [2, 5, 6]
Indexes = [1, 1, 1] --> Values: [2, 5, 7]
Indexes = [1, 1, 2] --> Values: [2, 5, 8]
Indexes = [2, 0, 0] --> Values: [3, 4, 6]
Indexes = [2, 0, 1] --> Values: [3, 4, 7]
Indexes = [2, 0, 2] --> Values: [3, 4, 8]
Indexes = [2, 1, 0] --> Values: [3, 5, 6]
Indexes = [2, 1, 1] --> Values: [3, 5, 7]
Indexes = [2, 1, 2] --> Values: [3, 5, 8]
Categorías
Linux

Can’t login Elementary OS after changing icon set

After trying to change the default icon set in Elementary OS, I was not able to log in again into the desktop. This happened to me after installing the Qogir-icon-theme. After trying to restore to the default values changing at /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf and /etc/lightdm/io.elementary.greeter.conf, the only thing that restored the graphical login was the following:

1. On the login screen, press Ctrl + Alt + F1 or Ctrl + Alt + F2 to open a virtual console.
2. Remove elementary-tweaks:

sudo apt purge elementary-tweaks

3. Remove all icon related folders at /usr/share/icons and ~/.local/share/icons
4. Reboot and hopefully, you will be able to login again in graphic mode.
5. The icons might not be the ‘elementary’ default set. So to fix this you will need to install again elementary-tweaks and configure it:

sudo apt install elementary-tweaks
Categorías
Linux

Transfer data from Android to PC using rsync

  1. Install SimpleSSHD in your mobile
  2. Start the data transfer with the rsync command:
rsync --update --progress -e 'ssh -p 2222' -azv 192.168.1.112:/sdcard/DCIM/Camera /computer-path

The password will be autogenerated and shown in the mobile display for every SSH connection.

Categorías
Electrónica

Current source and switched capacitors in parallel

A capacitor is an electronic device able to store electrical energy in an electrical field. Usually, the capacitor is defined in its most simple version as a device with two plates with area \(A\), separated by air (or any other dielectric material) a distance \(d\).

Parallel plate capacitor.svg
By inductiveload – own drawing, done in Inkscape 0.44, Public Domain, Link

If a current source is forced through the capacitor, the electrons (charge) will be deposited in one of the plates, creating in turn a electrical field across them. There won’t be any effective charge transference from one plate to the other because the space between them is filled with a dielectric material (non conductive). However, the electrical field across it can force the repulsion or attraction of charge at the other side of the plate.

Capacitor schematic with dielectric.svg
By Papa November – self-made SVG version of Image:Dielectric.png, incorporating Image:Capacitor schematic.svg as its base., CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

A capacitor is characterized by its capacitance. The capacitance is measured in Farads (F) and defines the ratio between the amount of charge needed to increase one volt at the terminals of the capacitor.

\[ C= \frac{Q}{V} \]

Therefore, a capacitor with 1 F will need 1 Coulomb (1 C) of charge to set 1 V across its terminals. Remember, that 1 C represents the amount of energy transported by a constant current of 1 A in 1 second.

Behavior of a capacitor connected to a DC current source

Let’s see what happens when we connect a DC current source to a capacitor. Transforming a little bit the previous expression, we can obtain:

\[ C = \frac{Q}{V}  \Rightarrow V = \frac{Q}{C} \]

As \(Q = \int{i\left(t\right) dt}\), we can get the voltage across the capacitor as a function of the time and the current:

\[ V\left(t\right) = \frac{1}{C} \int{i\left(t\right) dt} \]

Therefore, if we inject a constant current of \(1~mA\) for \(1~ns\), the voltage \(V_1\left(t\right)\) will be as follows:

In this example, what would be the charge stored in the capacitor at time \(t_1 = 1~ns\)?

\[ C = Q/V \Rightarrow Q = C \cdot V = 1~pF ·  1V = 1\cdot10^{-12}~C \]

Now, what would be the value of the voltage \(V_1\) if at time \(t_1 = 1~ns\) a second capacitor \(C_2\) (discharged) of \(2~pF\) of capacitance is connected?

At that very moment in which the second capacitor is connected in parallel, the charge in \(C_1\) will be distributed between \(C_1\) and \(C_2\).

The effective capacitance now is \(3~pF\) (\(1~pF  + 2~pF\)). Remember that using the capacitance definition, we got:

\[ V = \frac{Q}{C_p} = \frac{Q}{C_1 + C_2} = \frac{1\cdot 10^{-12} C}{1\cdot10^{-12}~F + 2\cdot10^{-12}~F} = 0.333~V \]

Therefore, as the capacitance now has increased and the charge remains the same (although shared between \(C_1\) and \(C_2\)), according to the previous expression the voltage has to drop.

If we would like to know the charge stored in every individual capacitor at time \(t_1 = 1~ns\), we could compute it as:
\[ Q = C \cdot V\]
\[ Q_1\left(t_1 = 1~ns\right) = C_1 \cdot V_1\left(t_1 = 1~ns\right) = 1~pF \cdot 0.333~V = 3.33\cdot10^{-13}~C\]
\[ Q_2\left(t_1 = 1~ns\right) = C_2 \cdot V_1\left(t_1 = 1~ns\right) = 2~pF \cdot 0.333~V = 6.66\cdot10^{-13}~C\]

The result is consistent with the previous calculation stating that the amount of charge at \(t_1=1~ns\) was \(Q = 10^{-12}~C\).

Finally, let’s see what happens if at time \(t_2 = 2~ns\) the capacitor \(C_2\) is again disconnected and only capacitor \(C_1\) is connected to the current source.

At time \(t_2 = 2~ns\) the voltage \(V_1\) will have increased to:

\[V\left(t_2 = 2~ns\right) = V_1\left(t_{1}^{+}\right) + \frac{1}{C_1 + C_2} \int_{t_1 = 1~ns}^{t_2 = 2~ns}{i\left(t\right) dt} \]

\[V\left(t_2 = 2~ns\right) = 0.333 V + \frac{1}{1~pF + 2~pF} \int_{t_1 = 1~ns}^{t_2 = 2~ns}{1~mA~dt} = 0.333~V +0.333~V = 0.666~V\]

Now the charge will be distributed as follows:

\[ Q_1\left(t_2 = 2~ns\right) = C_1 \cdot V_1\left(t_1 = 2~ns\right) = 1~pF \cdot 0.666~V  = 6.66\cdot10^{-13}~C\]
\[ Q_2\left(t_2 = 2~ns\right) = C_2 \cdot V_1\left(t_1 = 2~ns\right) = 2~pF \cdot 0.666~V = 1.22\cdot10^{-12}~C\]

If \(C_2\) is disconnected, the charge stored in it will be lost and won’t be redistributed towards \(C_1\). Therefore, the total amount of charge in the system at \(t_2 = 2~ns\) will only be that on \(C_1\).

Now, the voltage increment at the same rate as in the period \(0 < t < t_1 = 1~ns\).

Therefore, if we plot the voltage from \(t=0~ns\) to \(t_3 = 3~ns\), we would get the following voltage profile for \(V_1\):

Categorías
Sin categoría

Permanent record

The freedom of a country can only be measured by its respect for the rights of its citizens, and it’s my conviction that these rights are in fact limitations of state power that define exactly where and when a government may not infringe into that domain of personal or individual freedoms that during the American Revolution was called «liberty» and during the Internet Revolution is called «privacy».

Edward Snowden, Permanent Record (2019)

Categorías
Audio Programación

Romancero bot: converting article text into voice with Amazon Polly and sending it to Telegram

The following Python script extracts the content of an article using Readibility (ported to Python), converts it to voice using the Amazon Polly service and finally sends the audio as a voice note to a given user in Telegram using Telethon (Telegram client for Python).

For running the script you will need to install the following Python packages:

pip install boto3
pip install awscli
pip install readability-lxml
pip install telethon

Also, you will need to create a AWS account. If you already have an AWS account, make sure that you have a user created in the IAM Management Console with the following permissions:

User permissions for creating Polly jobs and accessing/writing files in a S3 bucket.

When creating this user, make sure you write down its ID access key and its secret access key. You will need them to configure the aws-cli client.

With this Amazon credentials, you can configure the AWS client by executing the following command:

aws configure

In this step, you will need to fulfill the details with the user credentials you wrote down when creating it.

Now, you will need to create a Telegram API ID. For this, you can go to the Telegram section «Create an Application«. After following the steps described in the official documentation, you will obtain an API ID (it’s a number) and a API hash (it’s a string).

With these steps already completed, you can place all the needed details in the script and run it.

import boto3
import textwrap
import requests
import re
from readability import Document
from telethon import TelegramClient, events, sync
import time
import os

#--------------------------------------------------------------------
# Configuration
#--------------------------------------------------------------------

##### Article #####
# Define URL
url = "PLACE_THE_URL_HERE"

##### Telegram #####
# Telegram API credentials
api_id = PLACE_API_ID_HERE
api_hash = 'PLACE_API_HASH_HERE'
# Telegram user to send messages
telegram_user = "PLACE_TELEGRAM_USER_HERE"
# Create Telegram client
telegram_client = TelegramClient('session_name', api_id, api_hash)
telegram_client.start()

##### AWS configuration #####
# Get S3 session
session = boto3.Session(profile_name='default')
# Get polly client
polly = session.client('polly')
# Create a S3 client to retrieve the file content
s3 = session.client('s3')
# Define bucket name
bucket_name = 'PLACE_BUCKET_NAME_HERE'
#--------------------------------------------------------------------
# Get HTML from the article
#--------------------------------------------------------------------

# Get HTML
response = requests.get(url)

# Extract content with Readibility
doc = Document(response.text)

# Get article body
html_text = doc.summary()

# Regular expression to identify HTML tags, e.g.:
html_tag_re = r"<\\?[^>]+>"

# Remove HTML tags from the article body
text_only = re.sub( html_tag_re, "", html_text,)

# Send message to user pointing to the URL that is going to be converted
telegram_client.send_message(telegram_user, "Converting: %s" % url)

#--------------------------------------------------------------------
# Convert text to voice
#--------------------------------------------------------------------

# Start Polly task to save in a Bucket
resp = polly.start_speech_synthesis_task(OutputFormat='mp3',
OutputS3BucketName=bucket_name,
Text=text_only,
VoiceId='Enrique')

# Get Polly task
task = polly.get_speech_synthesis_task(TaskId=resp['SynthesisTask']['TaskId'])

# Monitor task status until it is completed
while task['SynthesisTask']['TaskStatus'] != 'completed':
# Wait 2 seconds between server poll
time.sleep(2)
# Get Polly task
task = polly.get_speech_synthesis_task(TaskId=task['SynthesisTask']['TaskId'])
# Print the status of the task
print("Task status: %s" % task['SynthesisTask']['TaskStatus'])

print("Task completed!")

#--------------------------------------------------------------------
# Retrieve file and send to Telegram user
#--------------------------------------------------------------------

# Regular expression to extract the key (file name) of the synthesized file
key_re = r'/([0-9A-Za-z-.]+)$'
# Search the regular expression in the OutputUri
regex_search = re.search(key_re, task['SynthesisTask']['OutputUri'])
# Take only the first group of the re (key)
file_key = regex_search.group(1)

# Get file name to store in local
title_sanitized = doc.short_title().replace('"', '')
title_sanitized = title_sanitized.replace(':', '')
file_name = "%s.mp3" % title_sanitized

# Download file from the bucket and store it in a MP3 local file
with open(file_name, 'wb') as data:
s3.download_fileobj(bucket_name, file_key, data)

# Delete remote bucket file
s3.delete_object(Bucket=bucket_name,Key=file_key)
# Delete local file
if os.path.isfile(file_key):
os.remove(file_key)

# Send MP3 file as a voice note to the telegram user
telegram_client.send_file(telegram_user, file_name, voice_note=True)
# Send signature
telegram_client.send_message(telegram_user, "Message sent from Romancero bot.")

The user you specified will receive a message like this:

Categorías
Programación

Parser in PHP using regular expressions

You can use regular expressions in PHP with the function preg_match ( string $pattern , string $subject [, array &$matches [, int $flags = 0 [, int $offset = 0 ]]] ) . Only the first two paremeters are mandatory and they are the regex and the string where you want to search respectively.

In case of finding a result, preg_match() returns an array where the item at index 0 is the whole match. From 1 onwards they are placed the different groups of your regular expressions (in case there is any). If no match is found, preg_match() returns null.

One of the details that must be taken into account when using regular expressions on PHP is that they must be enclosed by forward slashes (/), e.g. $multiline_meaning_re = ‘/^([A-za-z ,»().\’;:]+)/’; . This regular expression matches any string with any set of letters, spaces, commas, double and single quotes, parenthesis points, colon and/or semicolon.

As a complete example, the following snippet opens a file, parses it to look for English idioms and uploads all of them a MySQL database.

<?php
$servername = "";
$database = "";
$username = "";
$password = "";
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $database);

// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
    die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}

    class Idiom {
        var $idiom = "";
        var $meaning = "";
        var $example = [];
        function print(){
            echo($this->idiom . "<br>" . $this->meaning . "<ul>");
            print_r($this->example);
            if(count($this->example) == 0 )
              echo("ERROR!!!!. There should be at least one example");
            foreach ($this->example as $value) {
                echo("<li>" . $value . "</li>");
            }
            echo("</ul>");
        }
        function upload($conn){
          echo("Uploading...");
          $example = "<ul class='list-group'>";
          foreach ($this->example as $value) {
            if($value !== '')
              $example = $example . "<li class='list-group-item'>" . $value . '</li>';
          }
          $example = $example . "</ul>";

          $idiom = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $this->idiom);
          $meaning = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $this->meaning);
          $example = mysqli_real_escape_string($conn, $example);

          $query = 'INSERT INTO idioms (`idiom`, `meaning`, `example`) VALUES ("'. $idiom . '","'. $meaning . '","'. $example . '")';
          mysqli_query($conn, $query);
        }
    }

    $file = fopen("idioms.txt", "r") or die("Unable to open file!");
    $idiom_meaning_re     = '/^([A-za-z,. -\/()\']+):([A-za-z ,"().\';:\n]+)/';
    $multiline_meaning_re = '/^([A-za-z ,"().\';:]+)/';
    $example_re           = '/^\|--([A-Za-z0-9 \',?.-;$\n"]+[^:])/';
    $new_idiom = 0;
    $new_example = 0;
    $idiom = null;
    $example = "";
    // Output one line until end-of-file
    while(!feof($file)) {
      $line = fgets($file);
      //echo($line . "<br>");
      preg_match($idiom_meaning_re, $line, $matches);

      if($matches != null){
        if($new_example === 1){
          array_push($idiom->example, $example);
          $new_example = 0;
        }
        if($idiom != null){
          $idiom->print();
          $idiom->upload($conn);
        }
        $idiom = new Idiom;
        $idiom->example = [];
        $example = "";
        $new_idiom = 1;
        $idiom->idiom = trim($matches[1]);
        $idiom->meaning = trim($matches[2]);
      }else{
        preg_match($example_re, $line, $matches);
        if($matches != null){
           if($example !== "")
              array_push($idiom->example, $example);
           $new_idiom = 0;
           $new_example = 1;
           $example = trim($matches[1]);
        }else{
          preg_match($multiline_meaning_re, $line, $matches);
          //var_dump($matches);
          if($matches != null && $new_idiom){
            $idiom->meaning = $idiom->meaning . ' ' . trim($matches[1]);
            //echo($idiom->meaning);
          } elseif ($matches != null && $new_example) {
            $example = $example . ' ' . trim($matches[1]);
          } else {
            $new_idiom   = 0;
            $new_example = 0;
          }
        }
      }
    }
    echo("Closing file");
    fclose($file);

    mysqli_close($conn);

?>

You can find further information about the preg_match() in the PHP official documentation.

Categorías
Programación

Introduction to D3 (Data-Driven Document)

One of the first questions you may ask yourself when getting introduced in D3 is: why are we using selectAll(‘html-tag-name’) method if there is no item to select of that type?

First, let’s see an example of the situation we are talking about:

<body>
  <script>
    const dataset = [12, 31, 22, 17, 25, 18, 29, 14, 9];
    
    // Add your code below this line
    d3.select('body')
      .selectAll('h2')
      .data(dataset)
      .enter()
      .append('h2')
      .text('New Title')
    // Add your code above this line
  </script>
</body>

In the previous example, the only existing HTML tag is <body> . We select body (d3.select(‘body’) ) and then we perform the .selectAll(‘h2’) . On its own, it makes no sense as the method won’t return any value since no <h2>  tag exists. Nevertheless, it will make sense if we keep looking at the following code.

After the select .selectAll(‘h2’)  we attach the existing dataset to the selected items (.data(dataset) ). Then, we use the enter()  method, which gives meaning to the previous .selectAll(‘h2’) . When using enter() , D3 looks for the number of selected items to bind them with the data. In case of having not enough items in the selection, the enter()  method will create them.

Therefore, as .selectAll(‘h2’)  was empty and the dataset  variable contains 9 elements, it will iterate the code 9 times. In case of having already created some  <h2>  elements, it will simply fulfill the HTML code the necessary iteration to cover all the dataset  elements. Remember that who does this iteration is  the data() method.  It parses the data set, and any method that’s chained after data() is run once for each item in the data set.

You can find more information in the official documentation at the D3js.org website.

Scales

In D3 there exists the Scale function to change the value of the data set so that it can fit in the screen. Two important methods are range() and domain(). The domain method covers the set of input values whereas the range function convers the set of output values. Let’s see an example:

const scale = d3.scaleLinear();
scale.domain([50, 480]);
scale.range([10, 500]);

scale(50) // Returns 10
scale(480) // Returns 500
scale(325) // Returns 323.37
scale(750) // Returns 807.67

From freeCodeCamp:

The domain()  method passes information to the scale about the raw data values for the plot. The range()  method gives it information about the actual space on the web page for the visualization.

Categorías
Linux

Send audio from mobile phone (Android/iOS) to Raspberry

Platform used: Raspberry Pi 3 B+
Bluetooth module: built-in
First, update firmware to make sure you have latest version:

sudo rpi-update

Now, install all the needed pulse-audio packages:

 sudo apt install pulseaudio-*.

Configure the bluetooth in the Raspberry:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ bluetoothctl
[NEW] Controller XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX raspberrypi [default]
[bluetooth]# power on
Changing power on succeeded
[bluetooth]# agent NoInputNoOutput
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# default-agent
Default agent request successful
[bluetooth]# discoverable on
Changing discoverable on succeeded
[CHG] Controller B8:27:EB:DB:58:46 Discoverable: yes
[bluetooth]# pairable on
Changing pairable on succeeded

In your mobile phone, search for the raspberry bluetooth signal and pair to it:

[Noname]# connect XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
Attempting to connect to XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
[CHG] Device XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX ServicesResolved: yes
Connection successful
[Noname]# trust XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
Changing XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX trust succeeded
[CHG] Controller XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX Discoverable: no
[Noname]# exit

Now, you can try to play some audio in your mobile and it should be reproduced in the the Raspberry.
In my case, audio was driven out to the HDMI. In case you want to switch it through the Jack 3.5 mm output you can run:

sudo raspi-config

Then, select Advanced Options > Audio > Force 3.5 mm (‘headphone’) jack
With this all set, you can stream any audio such as the built-in music player, Spotify or YouTube to the Raspberry and from it to the connected speakers or HDMI display.

Finally, as the device has been stored as a trusted device, every time the Raspberry is booted, you won’t need to repeat this process. It will be so easy as connecting your mobile phone to the available raspberry bluetooth signal.

If sound sounds distorted, try restarting pulseaudio with:

pulseaudio -k

Handling with several devices

If you pair several devices, only first connected device will be able to stream audio. If I connect my computer to the raspberry and then I try to connect my mobile phone (both previously paired and trusted), phone connection will fail. First, I’ll need to disconenct my computer and only then I’ll be able to successfully connect to the raspberry with my mobile phone.